Michael Faraday in his laboratory at the Royal Institution

Always space for new findings in science

We rely on prior scientific discovery by researcher’s who are long time gone; or we recognize their findings as true only after their scientific break-through becomes common knowledge.

Accepting a (fresh) research-finding is difficult because it breaks one (or more than one) old perceptions. Finding something new is also difficult for the same reason. It is all about our conservative intelligent foundations and the will to go beyond them.

This is what I believed to be the main reason why it is impossible for simple minds to make breakthrough findings in science. But it is not just he perception, it is something even simpler. It is our nescience of taking granted everything we see, without asking the questions.

Faraday has put this one nicely in one of this letters:
“I was this morning called by a trifling circumstance to notice the peculiar motions of camphor on water; I should not have mentioned the simple circumstance but that I thought the effect was owing to electricity, and I supposed that if you were acquainted with the phenomenon, you would notice it. I conceive, too, that a science may be illustrated by those minute actions and effects, almost as much as by the evident and obvious phenomena. Facts are plentiful enough, but we know not how to class them; many are overlooked because they seem uninteresting: but remember that what led Newton to pursue and discover the law of gravity, and ultimately the laws by which worlds revolve, was–the fall of an apple.”

Dr. Bence Jones, Faraday’s Life and Letters, Vol. I, Pg 25

 

brain1

Science today – Simple Scenario of Research Paper use- The Unclaimed Claims

A: That moment, when you read a paper and you know one of the cited authors :)
A: *quote from the paper which is citing here, with a claim*
B: aha! :)
B: cool, which paper?
A: wait, let me give you a link to the PDF
A: *link to paper here*
A: *Title of Paper Here*
B: well, but i was not aware of the fact that in that paper i show *claim here*
A: that is the funn in this world
A: you say something
A: ppl transmit it differently
A: and by the end of the day we are making Science already :)
B: i hope people won’t continue to cite that paper in this way …
A: I am reading your paper now. I did not read it before
A: but the important thing is that your paper inspired a judgement
A: you should be proud, that is the aim of scientific publications
B: you won’t find evidence to that claim. but good method: read cited papers
B: yes, citation count is all we need
A: :) and inspiration of judgement

 

I am not putting any comment here. After all, research papers are being read.

research-data

5 Steps to Research Data Readiness – a guide for IT managers

The following content was extracted from a presentation of the Digital Curation Center in the UK. The context of the presentation is region-oriented, but it still contains valuable information for anyone dealing with research data anywhere.

Research data is a valuable resource that needs to be properly managed if the maximum return on research investment is to be realised. Recognition of its importance is reflected in the policies of the principal research funders, as well as by an emerging suite of institutional data management policies.
Much of the responsibility for providing an effective data management infrastructure will fall upon IT services, who will be expected to store, protect, preserve and facilitate the retrieval of a wide range of data in order to enable the optimum exploitation of research  outputs – often in ways not predicted by the original data creators.
To ensure that you are ready to meet these responsibilities follow our 5 Steps to Research Data Readiness. At each step we give you links to tools and resources to help you on your way.

Step 1: Take stock

You are probably already responsible for quite a lot of research data, but just how much do you have and how much do you need to keep? Until you know what you have, where it came from and for how long it needs to be kept accessible, you will struggle to plan your future strategy effectively.

The Data Asset Framework provides a methodology and an online tool to allow a systematic audit of your institution’s existing data holdings
The DCC’s guide How to Appraise & Select Research Data for Curation will give you practical advice on working with data creators, helping you to decide which data should be archived for the long term and which can be safely destroyed after set periods of time:
www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/appraiseselect-data

Step 2: Let research needs drive your strategy

Once you know what data is being held you can design a strategy for the future management of existing and new research data. Creating systems and policies that support the needs of both data creators and data users is crucial. After all, there is no point in holding onto data if users can’t find it, access it and use it when they need it.
• Start by reviewing your institution’s research codes of practice and related policies. Are these currently being supported by IT infrastructure and services? Research funders publish their requirements for data retention, with most now expecting that data should be held for 10 years or more. Just as important is making sure that any sensitive data isn’t kept for longer than is legally allowed. The DCC has gathered together funder policies, useful tools and legal guidance at www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/policy-and-legal
• Many research funders now require applicants to submit Data Management Plans as part of their grant applications. Ensuring that you are aware of and can contribute to the DMPs being produced in your institution will give you a good idea of what kinds of data are going to be generated, enabling you to prepare your support to researchers both during and after a research programme. Find out more about DMPs at www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/data-managementplans
There will be a lot to consider – but remember, you’re not alone. Get others involved in this step – staff from the research support office, library, archives and the FoI office should be contributing.

Step 3: Re-evaluate your existing infrastructure and data architecture

Knowing what data you currently hold and what the future needs of your research community are will allow you to re-evaluate your existing infrastructure and data architecture to ensure that it is fit for purpose.
• A CARDIO assessment, conducted in collaboration with members of the research community and other key stakeholders, such as the library and research support office, can help you to identify which parts of your systems currently work well and which will need  development or re-design

Step 4: Get to know the new technologies and standards

Technologies and standards relating to data management are developing rapidly and it is essential to keep pace with these advances if your systems are to be fit for the future.
• The DCC website is a great source of information on new developments; in addition, the DCC has created a suite of useful tools that can be found at www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/tools-and-applications
• We also offer a catalogue of relevant tools and applications produced by other experts, which can be accessed at  www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/externalsoftware-and-hardware/tools. The majority of these are freely available so you won’t need to worry about securing extra budget allocation to test these out at your institution.
• New JISC-funded services that provide computing ‘in the cloud’ as an alternative to expensive campus servers are progressively  being brought to market. Details can be found on their website at www.jisc.ac.uk/
• The JISC Managing Research Data programme will be of particular interest as a source of case studies in the delivery of infrastructure and services: www.jisc.ac.ukwhatwedo/programmes/di_researchmanagementmanagingresearchdata.aspx.

Step 5: Bring your staff up to speed

So, all the policies, procedures, systems, hardware and software are in place. Now you need to make sure your staff are up to speed.
It is important first of all that they understand what your institution’s researchers are trying to do – and why – for which they must be equipped to join and engage with them.

Some familiarity with the key characteristics of the research disciplines will always be helpful but a sound grounding in the principal aims and techniques of research data management will be essential.
• The DCC’s Digital Curation 101 and Tools of the Trade training courses can help here: www.dcc.ac.uk/training. The DCC also offers train the trainer courses to help equip your support staff in basic data management techniques.
• There may also be useful course material available from the Research Data Management Training (RDMTrain) projects being funded by JISC: www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/mrd/rdmtrain.aspx

Article Credits: http://www.dcc.ac.uk

facebook-one-graph

Facebook goes public, time to hide from Google!

I am not going to write about Facebook, even though the title starts with “Facebook goes public”. Sure it was such a great news, great financial turmoils, many discussions on internet, over-priced, bubble-boom etc. I am no longer scared of Facebook privacy either. By the end of the day, it is just one more website and I don’t care if it sells my data anymore. I already lost the control over my data in the web at the moment I first opened my first website, or my first email. It is all there, forever.

Facebook goes IPO and I receive an email from Google! It is changing its policies. All of them! One policy to rule them all they inform. It is more practical, and easier for you – I read in the email notification.
I don’t care at first; but then it reminds me of something!!!

We have two computers at home. 2 notebooks who are of course connected through the same wireless. Mine, which is also used as a toy for my little daughter, and my wife’s. My wife is also a very active internet user since she is also in the IT field and basically works non stop.

A few months ago, just close to my birthday I saw some ads of Wallets popping out on most of the sites I visited. I used to have a tiny wallet, which was no longer practical and complainted about it most of the time. The moment I saw so many Wallet ads, I realized my wife has been watching for a good leather wallet and “Google-Ads” was doing its job advertising as much as it could to the same IP!? I would say IP, but we are clients of a large provider in a large country, so my IP is changed at least 2-3 times during the day. I kept watching those ads for weeks. My wife confirmed that she has been looking for a wallet gift, but she assured me that it was only from her computer. (and that moment her surprize gift idea was ruinned and I did not get a wallet thx! to google-ads).

Just a few days ago we had a similar episode. A small diamant has slipped from my wife’s ring and got lost. Promised her we would fix it next time we have a chance to travel to the city we bought it, I almost forgot about the episode until…. Diamonds and rings started popping up again in pages I was visiting! On my computer! Different mac-address, probably a different IP. (I guess I should let my neighbor use my wireless so I know what he is up, … too just out of curiosity).

So, I am being tracked! We are visiting a page, and our interests are being harvested and haunted at the same time. Now I see one policy for a Google with 60 services or more and I start thinking! I did not open at first an account at Google, but I was forced to from Analytics! So I opened an email account. Sometimes later, for some reason I wanted to try iGoogle and registered for that service. Not sure how I ended up having a trackable history on Google which astonished me when I saw what I searched for 2 years ago. And then it kept growing and growing. Today I searched myself on Google and I found a picture uploaded from my android mobile which I did not even remember uploading …

So I am summarizing what Google knows about me.
I am using Google DNS Service (because my ISP provider forwards me to dummy full of commercial websites whenever DNS is not found for some domain. Using Google NS is cool, but it also means that Google knows every domain I opened actively or pasively! Not a problem, nothing to hide, I am anonymous I would say. But Google also knows my profile from the dummy Google+ service. It knows some of my correspondence from Google Mail, it attempts to know more about my business or activity through Google Docs and … it knows who I search for, whose quotes inspire me, what programming language I search the most, where I work, what I dress (probably has a wrong information on the wallet I bought in a real shop), who’se friends I chat to, who’s people I am am professionally oriented through gocs and … now it is Unifying all these services until one Privacy rule.

I had enough so now I virtually am running away! You should probably do the same.  There is a little new search engine called Duck Duck Go. I am gonna search my self and other stupid stuff there from now on. My email is quite Ok at my own server (or I still love yahoo for that matter)… Slowly I will migrate everything from Google. It is not that I am paranoid, but this is not the Google I loved. This is a google that is intimidating my presence online. It is damaging the concept of a free internet and introducing those concepts of “Corporations Know All”. Microsoft is not that evil after all. They just wanted to sell me desktop application, and not sell me digitally everyday.

Google; Not a web friendly company any more

© Copyright 2011 CorbisCorporation

Playground

Somewhere in the year 2004, Tim O’Reilly defined a new web referred as Web 2.0. This new web was a shifting paradigm of users that interacted and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue. The users played the role of the creators of the content, in contrast to what might have been called Web 1.0 that was a passive publication of information with few creators and many consumers.

We did not focus too much attention on previous trends, but strong adjustments in the usability of computers have happened  before as well. The model and examples that O’Reilly used to describe the new web became somehow a prophecy of what the web offered and represented in this decade.  The main concept of the new web was an open infrastructure, where users and sites could easily exchange information to each other.

I remember the times, where Google did not even exist. There where a lot of search engines we relied upon. I remember Altavista, Lycos (HotBot), Yahoo, Microsoft’s Looksmart, Excite etc. They where all good engines, which at a certain moment stopped caring about the users. Suddenly it became a little more difficult to get your page indexed in Yahoo, it got slower to get it indexed in Altavista, it was impossible to have it fetched by Lycos… And then Google came and it opened up a new world through using DMOZ and it allowed anyone to submit his page, and provide faster, better and more results to any query and webpage in the internet.We loved Google! We all did!

At the same time we used to mock up Microsoft which used to find ideas or products in little players and transform them in big. They were no longer creating, they were doing what others were doing, but with a better marketing. Of course they had the potential to do a better work than anyone else in the industry, but somehow… they sucked at it. Reason!? They were not trying to provide a service, they were trying to keep the users within their castle. We realized that, and we hated them.

Almost 10 years from then and new perception of web with new players. Being a software developer with a primary experience in the web, I cannot resist seing the web as a set of playgrounds where visitors rush in. It is clear that we use the internet to entertain ourself (either by really entertaining, or by other activities that provide us pleasure and relax such as reading, learning, improving ourselves etc). All these playgrounds should be nothing but peaceful green places that let you see the horizons and jump to other playgrounds if you want.

The classic playgrounds were those informative portals, the discussion boards where we used to share ideas, the newspapers, Last.Fm, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, WoW. What made those websites loved and well known was their potential in sharing the information they contained. APIs which few users see and thousand of websites use. I love the ability that we have to share a YouTube video by just copying a simple code, most of us use twitter plugins to spread what they write in their WordPress blogs. We can automatically publish in Facebook, Twitter, FF and many other websites. We call them social websites, and a social web.

Google Wave was supposed to kill email as we knew it!

On top of all these websites, by means of content that it can share stands Google which … I would say, is not social at all. Google has some of the nicest products, which provide no mean of sharing them (taking YouTube aside). PageRank for example has been the pride of Google, and in the perspective of Google, one should only be able to retrieve it by visiting the Google’s toolbar. If you see a website that is offering PR check, that website is doing it “ilegally”. But not just PR, it is a whole set of other applications that have no commercial use that are a frustration from Google. Google Buzz for example provided a nice way of having your BUZZs be published in Twitter, but the other way around was tricky and not officially supported. Well, Google Buzz is going down now, so is Google Wave which was supposed to kill email!

The last great product from Google is Google Plus! Almost everyone knows it, almost nobody uses it. The reason why?; it lacks vitality, it lacks dynamism. Instead of being a cheerful playground, the Google Plus is a comfortable tomb of stupid information that you can share with your geek friends (like me) that spend at least 3 times as much in other social networks anyway. Google Pages!? They are meant to be tools for the business, with flexibility of spreading information. So before its too late, we should realize that Google is doing the same mistake as Microsoft a decade ago, or hopefully, the Google CEO’s should realize it. Google is no longer trying to provide a service, it is trying to keep the users within their castle. And the castle will eventually lose it shiny and become a tomb that none wants to visit.

Stop Words

List of English Stop Words

Stop Words

Stop Words are words which do not contain important significance to be used in Search Queries. Usually these words are filtered out from search queries because they return vast amount of unnecessary information. A better definition is provided below:

“Words that do not appear in the index in a particular database because they are either insignificant (i.e., articles, prepositions) or so common that the results would be higher than the system can handle (as in the case of IUCAT where terms such as United States or Department are stop words in keyword searching.) Stop words vary from system to system. Also, some systems will merely ignore stop words where use of stop words in other systems will result in retrieving zero hits. ”

http://www.iusb.edu/~libg/instruction/helpguide/handouts/2005Boolean.shtml

Since I needed to use them in a project (Humboldt Diglital Library and Network), I am posting here a list of English stop words, and below a PHP array containing these words

Here is a list of english stop words:

a

about

above

across

after

afterwards

again

against

all

almost

alone

along

already

also

although

always

am

among

amongst

amoungst

amount

an

and

another

any

anyhow

anyone

anything

anyway

anywhere

are

around

as

at

back

be

became

because

become

becomes

becoming

been

before

beforehand

behind

being

below

beside

besides

between

beyond

bill

both

bottom

but

by

call

can

cannot

cant

co

computer

con

could

couldnt

cry

de

describe

detail

do

done

down

due

during

each

eg

eight

either

eleven

else

elsewhere

empty

enough

etc

even

ever

every

everyone

everything

everywhere

except

few

fifteen

fify

fill

find

fire

first

five

for

former

formerly

forty

found

four

from

front

full

further

get

give

go

had

has

hasnt

have

he

hence

her

here

hereafter

hereby

herein

hereupon

hers

herse”

him

himse”

his

how

however

hundred

i

ie

if

in

inc

indeed

interest

into

is

it

its

itse”

keep

last

latter

latterly

least

less

ltd

made

many

may

me

meanwhile

might

mill

mine

more

moreover

most

mostly

move

much

must

my

myse”

name

namely

neither

never

nevertheless

next

nine

no

nobody

none

noone

nor

not

nothing

now

nowhere

of

off

often

on

once

one

only

onto

or

other

others

otherwise

our

ours

ourselves

out

over

own

part

per

perhaps

please

put

rather

re

same

see

seem

seemed

seeming

seems

serious

several

she

should

show

side

since

sincere

six

sixty

so

some

somehow

someone

something

sometime

sometimes

somewhere

still

such

system

take

ten

than

that

the

their

them

themselves

then

thence

there

thereafter

thereby

therefore

therein

thereupon

these

they

thick

thin

third

this

those

though

three

through

throughout

thru

thus

to

together

too

top

toward

towards

twelve

twenty

two

un

under

until

up

upon

us

very

via

was

we

well

were

what

whatever

when

whence

whenever

where

whereafter

whereas

whereby

wherein

whereupon

wherever

whether

which

while

whither

who

whoever

whole

whom

whose

why

will

with

within

without

would

yet

you

your

yours

yourself

yourselves

And here is a php array with stop words:

$stopwords = array(“a”, “about”, “above”, “above”, “across”, “after”, “afterwards”, “again”, “against”, “all”, “almost”, “alone”, “along”, “already”, “also”,”although”,”always”,”am”,”among”, “amongst”, “amoungst”, “amount”,  “an”, “and”, “another”, “any”,”anyhow”,”anyone”,”anything”,”anyway”, “anywhere”, “are”, “around”, “as”,  “at”, “back”,”be”,”became”, “because”,”become”,”becomes”, “becoming”, “been”, “before”, “beforehand”, “behind”, “being”, “below”, “beside”, “besides”, “between”, “beyond”, “bill”, “both”, “bottom”,”but”, “by”, “call”, “can”, “cannot”, “cant”, “co”, “con”, “could”, “couldnt”, “cry”, “de”, “describe”, “detail”, “do”, “done”, “down”, “due”, “during”, “each”, “eg”, “eight”, “either”, “eleven”,”else”, “elsewhere”, “empty”, “enough”, “etc”, “even”, “ever”, “every”, “everyone”, “everything”, “everywhere”, “except”, “few”, “fifteen”, “fify”, “fill”, “find”, “fire”, “first”, “five”, “for”, “former”, “formerly”, “forty”, “found”, “four”, “from”, “front”, “full”, “further”, “get”, “give”, “go”, “had”, “has”, “hasnt”, “have”, “he”, “hence”, “her”, “here”, “hereafter”, “hereby”, “herein”, “hereupon”, “hers”, “herself”, “him”, “himself”, “his”, “how”, “however”, “hundred”, “ie”, “if”, “in”, “inc”, “indeed”, “interest”, “into”, “is”, “it”, “its”, “itself”, “keep”, “last”, “latter”, “latterly”, “least”, “less”, “ltd”, “made”, “many”, “may”, “me”, “meanwhile”, “might”, “mill”, “mine”, “more”, “moreover”, “most”, “mostly”, “move”, “much”, “must”, “my”, “myself”, “name”, “namely”, “neither”, “never”, “nevertheless”, “next”, “nine”, “no”, “nobody”, “none”, “noone”, “nor”, “not”, “nothing”, “now”, “nowhere”, “of”, “off”, “often”, “on”, “once”, “one”, “only”, “onto”, “or”, “other”, “others”, “otherwise”, “our”, “ours”, “ourselves”, “out”, “over”, “own”,”part”, “per”, “perhaps”, “please”, “put”, “rather”, “re”, “same”, “see”, “seem”, “seemed”, “seeming”, “seems”, “serious”, “several”, “she”, “should”, “show”, “side”, “since”, “sincere”, “six”, “sixty”, “so”, “some”, “somehow”, “someone”, “something”, “sometime”, “sometimes”, “somewhere”, “still”, “such”, “system”, “take”, “ten”, “than”, “that”, “the”, “their”, “them”, “themselves”, “then”, “thence”, “there”, “thereafter”, “thereby”, “therefore”, “therein”, “thereupon”, “these”, “they”, “thickv”, “thin”, “third”, “this”, “those”, “though”, “three”, “through”, “throughout”, “thru”, “thus”, “to”, “together”, “too”, “top”, “toward”, “towards”, “twelve”, “twenty”, “two”, “un”, “under”, “until”, “up”, “upon”, “us”, “very”, “via”, “was”, “we”, “well”, “were”, “what”, “whatever”, “when”, “whence”, “whenever”, “where”, “whereafter”, “whereas”, “whereby”, “wherein”, “whereupon”, “wherever”, “whether”, “which”, “while”, “whither”, “who”, “whoever”, “whole”, “whom”, “whose”, “why”, “will”, “with”, “within”, “without”, “would”, “yet”, “you”, “your”, “yours”, “yourself”, “yourselves”, “the”);

Updated October 3d, 2009.

This is the stop words list used by MySQL FullText feature

a’s, able, about, above, according, accordingly, across, actually, after, afterwards, again, against, ain’t, all, allow, allows, almost, alone, along, already, also, although, always, am, among, amongst, an, and, another, any, anybody, anyhow, anyone, anything, anyway, anyways, anywhere, apart, appear, appreciate, appropriate, are, aren’t, around, as, aside, ask, asking, associated, at, available, away, awfully, be, became, because, become, becomes, becoming, been, before, beforehand, behind, being, believe, below, beside, besides, best, better, between, beyond, both, brief, but, by, c’mon, c’s, came, can, can’t, cannot, cant, cause, causes, certain, certainly, changes, clearly, co, com, come, comes, concerning, consequently, consider, considering, contain, containing, contains, corresponding, could, couldn’t, course, currently, definitely, described, despite, did, didn’t, different, do, does, doesn’t, doing, don’t, done, down, downwards, during, each, edu, eg, eight, either, else, elsewhere, enough, entirely, especially, et, etc, even, ever, every, everybody, everyone, everything, everywhere, ex, exactly, example, except, far, few, fifth, first, five, followed, following, follows, for, former, formerly, forth, four, from, further, furthermore, get, gets, getting, given, gives, go, goes, going, gone, got, gotten, greetings, had, hadn’t, happens, hardly, has, hasn’t, have, haven’t, having, he, he’s, hello, help, hence, her, here, here’s, hereafter, hereby, herein, hereupon, hers, herself, hi, him, himself, his, hither, hopefully, how, howbeit, however, i’d, i’ll, i’m, i’ve, ie, if, ignored, immediate, in, inasmuch, inc, indeed, indicate, indicated, indicates, inner, insofar, instead, into, inward, is, isn’t, it, it’d, it’ll, it’s, its, itself, just, keep, keeps, kept, know, knows, known, last, lately, later, latter, latterly, least, less, lest, let, let’s, like, liked, likely, little, look, looking, looks, ltd, mainly, many, may, maybe, me, mean, meanwhile, merely, might, more, moreover, most, mostly, much, must, my, myself, name, namely, nd, near, nearly, necessary, need, needs, neither, never, nevertheless, new, next, nine, no, nobody, non, none, noone, nor, normally, not, nothing, novel, now, nowhere, obviously, of, off, often, oh, ok, okay, old, on, once, one, ones, only, onto, or, other, others, otherwise, ought, our, ours, ourselves, out, outside, over, overall, own, particular, particularly, per, perhaps, placed, please, plus, possible, presumably, probably, provides, que, quite, qv, rather, rd, re, really, reasonably, regarding, regardless, regards, relatively, respectively, right, said, same, saw, say, saying, says, second, secondly, see, seeing, seem, seemed, seeming, seems, seen, self, selves, sensible, sent, serious, seriously, seven, several, shall, she, should, shouldn’t, since, six, so, some, somebody, somehow, someone, something, sometime, sometimes, somewhat, somewhere, soon, sorry, specified, specify, specifying, still, sub, such, sup, sure, t’s, take, taken, tell, tends, th, than, thank, thanks, thanx, that, that’s, thats, the, their, theirs, them, themselves, then, thence, there, there’s, thereafter, thereby, therefore, therein, theres, thereupon, these, they, they’d, they’ll, they’re, they’ve, think, third, this, thorough, thoroughly, those, though, three, through, throughout, thru, thus, to, together, too, took, toward, towards, tried, tries, truly, try, trying, twice, two, un, under, unfortunately, unless, unlikely, until, unto, up, upon, us, use, used, useful, uses, using, usually, value, various, very, via, viz, vs, want, wants, was, wasn’t, way, we, we’d, we’ll, we’re, we’ve, welcome, well, went, were, weren’t, what, what’s, whatever, when, whence, whenever, where, where’s, whereafter, whereas, whereby, wherein, whereupon, wherever, whether, which, while, whither, who, who’s, whoever, whole, whom, whose, why, will, willing, wish, with, within, without, won’t, wonder, would, would, wouldn’t, yes, yet, you, you’d, you’ll, you’re, you’ve, your, yours, yourself, yourselves, zero

CSV Format

a,able,about,across,after,all,almost,also,am,among,an,and,any,are,as,at,be,because,been,but,by,can,cannot,could,dear,did,do,does,either,else,ever,every,for,from,get,got,had,has,have,he,her,hers,him,his,how,however,i,if,in,into,is,it,its,just,least,let,like,likely,may,me,might,most,must,my,neither,no,nor,not,of,off,often,on,only,or,other,our,own,rather,said,say,says,she,should,since,so,some,than,that,the,their,them,then,there,these,they,this,tis,to,too,twas,us,wants,was,we,were,what,when,where,which,while,who,whom,why,will,with,would,yet,you,your